Tuesday, February 25, 2020
International Business Management - Essay Example The resources that the investor would like to control most are trademarks, patents and management know how that can be used to determine the competitiveness position of the initial holder (Schutter et al., 2013, p. 81). FDI can be horizontal or vertical. Horizontal FDI occurs when a company invests in the same trade as it has been dealing with at home (Chen, 2000, pp. 91Ã¢â¬â95). Vertical FDI has two forms, that is, forward and backward FDI. Forward vertical FDI occurs when a company invests in amenities that will devour the output of the original firm in the home country. The backward vertical FDI takes place where a firm invests in the facilities that provide raw materials or inputs to the home country (Schutter et al., 2013, p. 82). Coca cola has become the largest soft drink firm globally since it was formulated 140 years ago in Georgia United States. Currently, the company has its product in more than 200 countries worldwide serving more than 16 million people. The process of Coca Cola company investment in China started in 1979 after China and United States restored their diplomatic relations. The first Coca cola manufacturing factory was launched in 1981 in Beijing. The process of decision making consists of different stages and decision making along the way. The foremost phase of the process is the consideration for exportation possibility, in which the Coca Cola company managers determined if they can export their product to China. To make this decision the company considers transportation costs and the importation barrier. In case the transportation costs and importation barriers are too high, the Coca Cola Company discards the idea for exporting their product to China. In this notion it is impossible for the Coca Cola Company to export their soft drinks all the way to China, therefore, a different approach is used. The Company may think of joint venture alliances in the China market by
Sunday, February 9, 2020
(A BIG CITY) traffic congestion - Term Paper Example In cases where the traffic congestion proves to be a major liability, the government then has to come in and devise a strategy that will reduce the traffic congestion within the city or country. In some cities, their governments have done a remarkable job in reducing traffic congestion in their cities. It would be great if there were a situation where the government succeeded in dealing with this problem of traffic congestion. Unfortunately, there is still work to be done in other major cities. A good example of a city that still has traffic congestion problems is Los Angeles in the United States. The city of Los Angeles is one of the major cities in the world that is experiencing traffic congestion. With most people going to work by vehicles, the traffic congestion for most individuals leads to a loss of about 59 hours per year t commuters as they sit in traffic. It was mainly because of industrialization and development in this region, which led to many people migrating to Los Angeles. These factors created job opportunities for many people as well as a chance to live in a progressing area. People wanted to move closer to work, which led to the existence of a large population in Los Angeles. Most of the trips made along this area have a lot to do with work. For most people, they find it more convenient to own a personal vehicle, which will enable them have the luxury and comfort of driving themselves to work or wherever they are needed. It however also includes women who are going for shopping or dropping off their children at daycares. As a result, just about everyone in t his city is affected by the traffic congestion conditions surrounding them. As a result of this severe condition of traffic congestion in Los Angeles, there are several methods of reducing the severity of the situation. These include the government and the occupants of this major city. The government can revisit the structure of the road systems in Los Angeles and develop a different
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Deficiency Disease Essay Diseases that are caused by lack of some particular nutrient in a persons diet are called Deficiency Diseases. Following are some of those diseases, their cause and their treatment: 1. Night-blindness: A child having this disease is unable to see properly in the dark. His eyes become dull and listless and the skin becomes dry. If not treated in time, the child may become blind. Cause: This disease is caused due to the deficiency of vitamin A in the diet. Treatment: A child suffering from night-blindness should take a diet rich in vitamin A. Carrots, fish, fruits, milk, butter, etc., are all good sources of vitamin A. 2. Beri-beri: This is basically a disorder of the nerves. It affects the health of eyes % and skin, growth of the body, formation of muscles and blood. There may also to be stomach and intestinal disturbances. Cause: This disease is caused due to the deficiency of vitamin-B. Treatment: The affected child must eat the foods rich in vitamin B like milk, fish, meat, cereals, egg, etc., and also seek medical advice from a doctor. 3. Scurvy: People suffering from scurvy have swollen and bleeding gums. They lose weight and become weak. Their teeth start shaking and become loose. Cause: This disease is caused due to the deficiency of vitamin-C. Treatment: Oranges, citrus fruits, cabbage, amla, etc., should be included in the diet of the patient. 4. Rickets: In this disease, the bones of the legs become thin, deformed and curved (bow-legged). The bones of the child become weak and soft. Cause: This disease is caused due to the deficiency of vitamin D. Treatment: The affected child must eat the foods rich in vitamin D like milk, fish, meat, butter, egg, etc., and take the advice of a doctor. 5. Anaemia: In this disease, the level of the haemoglobin becomes low gets tired very easily and feels weak. The skin becomes pale. The lips and nails become dull and colourless. Cause: This disease is caused due to the deficiency of iron. Treatment: The person should have plenty of green, leafy vegetables like spinach and cabbage. Meat, apples, beans, dry fruits, etc., should be included in the diet. A doctor must also be consulted immediately. 6. Goitre: In this disease, there is swelling around the neck region of a person. Cause: This disease is caused due to the deficiency of iodine. Treatment: The affected person needs to add iodised salt to his or her food. Prevention: A high standard of nutrition must, however, be aimed at and carefully maintained to ensure complete freedom from these preventable causes of ill-health.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
The use of performance enhancing drugs in sports (doping) is done to improve athletic performance. Doping in sports has become a highly controversial topic among professional sporting venues and in the media. With the increased pressure to perform, high priced contracts, increased competition, and advanced training methods todayÃ¢â¬â¢s athletes will try to gain an edge by any means necessary. Performance enhancing drugs used by athletes today include Human Growth Hormone (HGH), anabolic steroids, peptide hormones, amphetamines, insulin and stimulants. The reason athletes use performance enhancing drugs is to increase the amount of testosterone produced in the body. The increased testosterone in the body increases muscle strength by enabling new muscle growth. Although there are laws passed with the intention of ridding sports of the use of performance enhancing drugs, it is still a highly debated topic. Supporters argue it is beneficial for the sport. The opposition argues against it. A syndicated political columnist argues Ã¢â¬Å"Drugs that make sport exotic drain it of its exemplary power by making it a display of chemistry rather than characterÃ¢â¬âactually, a display of chemistry and bad characterÃ¢â¬ (Will). In light of the overwhelming evidence, one must agree with the 2004 Anabolic Steroids Act, which attempts to ban the use of anabolic steroids in U.S sporting events. The use of performance enhancing drugs in sports is dangerous, unethical and ruins the integrity of the specific sport, by giving an unfair advantage to the user over their competitors. No one can deny that the use of performance enhancing drugs in sports makes it much more entertaining for fans. Watching home run records get shattered, and new world record times being set,... ...iego: Greenhaven Press, 2006. At Issue. Rpt. from "testimony before the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Consumer Affairs, Foreign Commerce, and Tourism." 2002. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. "We Should Accept Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Competitive Sports." Writ. Radley Balko. Intelligence Squared US debate. Intelligence2 debates. 15 Jan. 2008. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. West, Doug. "Steroids Are Harmful." Steroids. Ed. Laura K. Egendorf. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2006. At Issue. Rpt. from "Steroid AbuseÃ¢â¬âGetting Bigger." YouthcultureÃ¯ ¼ today. 2002. 20-24. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. Will, George F. "Steroids Are Destroying Baseball." Steroids. Ed. Laura K. Egendorf. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2006. At Issue. Rpt. from "Steroids Scandal Is Damaging to Baseball." Conservative Chronicle (15 Dec. 2004): 25. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Personal management and human resource management (HRM) basically brings very similar meaning. The personnel who work for a company represent that companyÃ¢â¬â¢s human resource. Human resource management (HRM) department didnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually exist until 1940s, the activities performed by these departments were not all brand new but in fact, quite a number of the human resource practices and programs that we see today top derivation in the earlier times. Human resource management (HRM) is historically known as personal management which deals with official system for the management of the people within the organization. Many renowned companies want to achieve the transformation of their workforce into a foundation of completive advantage. HR manager inevitably has concerns for their workers. These concerns consists of how to manage layoffs, address deduction of employee loyalty, generate a well trained highly motivated work force that can deliver HR mangers have many concerns regarding their workers. These concerns include how to mange layoffs, address reduced employee loyalty, generate a well trained highly motivated work force that can deliver higher quality and productivity. Mange and increase diverse workforce and contain health care cost. HRM has been undergoing transformation. In 1970s, the job of the HR manger was to keep their companies out of court and in compliance with the increasing number of regulations governing the work place. In the 1980s HR mangers had to address staffing costs related to mergers and acquisitions and downsizing. The economic issues related to an increasingly global and completive workplace characterize the 1990s. Beside these concerns Firms are also facing some other challenges regarding workforce before we take up the HR challenges that face managers, we need to define manager and say a word about where human resources fit into the organization. Managers are people who are in charge of others and are responsible for the timely and correct execution of actions that promote their units' successful performance. B. History of Personnel Management A group of people becomes an organization when they cooperate with each other to achieve common goals. Communication among them is therefore important. But people have individual motivations, which often differ, from the corporate goals. An effective organization is one which succeeds in getting people to accept that cooperating to achieve organizational goals also helps them to achieve their own goals provided they are adequately rewarded through extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. This is achieved primarily through leadership and motivation. Employers therefore increasingly view human resource management from a strategic perspective, and as an appropriate means through which the chasm between organizational and individual goals can be narrowed. As it has been aptly observed: Ã¢â¬Å"Part of the problem is that we have split off human resource management from the general management problem, as if there were some other kind of management other than human resource management. As long as organizations are based upon the coordinated action of two or more people, management is by definition human resource management. Despite the proliferation of writings and studies on HRM, there is a wide gap between the rhetoric and the reality, though the gap has been narrowing in the 1990s. There is as yet inadequate research to ascertain the extent to which practice matches corporate policy statements, and the impact of HRM policies and practices Page # 29 on employee behavior and morale. To have a major impact on enterprises, HRM has to be diffused across an economy, rather than remain islands of excellence. Nevertheless, promoting excellent models of HRM stimulates interest in better people management. HRM has three basic goals, which contribute to achieving management objectives. The first is integration of HRM in two senses: integrating HRM into an organization's corporate strategy, and ensuring an HRM view in the decisions and actions of line managers. Integration in the first sense involves selecting the HRM options consistent with (and which promote) the particular corporate strategy. The option is determined by the type of employee behavior expected (e. g. innovation) needed to further the corporate strategy. For instance, the HRM policies in relation to recruitment, appraisal, compensation, training, etc. iffer according to whether the business strategy is one of innovation, quality enhancement or cost reduction. A strategy of innovation may require a pay system less influenced by market rates but which rewards creativity, and the pay rates would even be low so long as there are ways of making up the earnings package. A cost reduction strategy may lead to pay rates being strongly influenced by market levels. Similarly, training and development would rec eive less emphasis in a cost reduction strategy than in one where the objective is innovation or quality. But such integration is difficult without securing the inclusion of a HRM view in the decisions and practices of line managers. This requires that HRM should not be a centralized function. A second goal of HRM is securing commitment through building strong cultures. This involves promoting organizational goals by uniting employees through a shared set of values (quality, service, innovation, etc. ) based on a convergence of employee and enterprise interests, which the larger Japanese enterprises have been particularly adept at. A third goal of HRM is to achieve flexibility and adaptability to manage change and innovation in response to rapid changes consequent upon globalization. Relevant to HRM policies in this regard are training and multi-skilling, re-organization of work and removal of narrow job classifications. Appropriate HRM policies are designed, for instance, to recruit, develop and retain quality staff, to formulate and implement agreed performance goals and measures, and to build a unified organizational culture. C. Shifting from Personnel Management to HRM The transformation is reflected by raising important role of HRM from the personal management purpose from one of focussing on employee welfare to one of managing people in a way, which matches organizational goal and individual goals and providing employees with intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Therefore Therefore, today Human Resource Management (HRM), historically known as personal management, deals with formal system for the management of the people within the organization. Many well-known companies report that they are trying to transform their workforce into a source of completive advantage. Stages of shifting of Personnel Management to HRM: First, HRM earlier reacted piece-meal to problems as they arose. Effective HRM seeks to link HRM issues to the overall strategy of the organization, with the most effective HRM policies and practices integrated into such corporate policies and strategies to reinforce or change an organization's culture. Integration is needed in two senses Ã¢â¬â integrating HRM issues in an organization's strategic plans and securing the acceptance and inclusion of a HRM view in the decisions of line managers. The HRM policies in respect of the various functions (e. g. recruitment, training, etc. ) should be internally consistent. They must also be consistent with the business strategies and should reflect the organization's core values. The problem of integrating HRM view business strategy arises, for example, in a diversified enterprise with different products and markets. In such cases it is difficult to match HRM policies with strategies that could vary among different business activities, each of which may call for different HRM policies. Second, building strong cultures is a way of promoting particular organizational goals, in that Ã¢â¬Å"a Ã¢â¬Ëstrong culture' is aimed at uniting employees through a shared set of managerially sanctioned values (Ã¢â¬Ëquality', Ã¢â¬Ëservice', Ã¢â¬Ëinnovation' etc. ) that assume an identification of employee and employer interests. However, there can be tension between a strong organizational culture and the need to adapt to changed Page # 30 ircumstances and to be flexible, particularly in the highly competitive and rapidly changing environment in which employers have to operate today. Rapid change demanded by the market is sometimes difficult in an organization with a strong culture. IBM has been cited as a case in point. Its firmly-held beliefs about products and services made it difficult for it to effect changes in time, i. e. when the market required a radical change in product and service (from mainframe, customized systems, salesmen as management consultants to customer-as-end-user, seeking quality of product and service) o personal computers (standardized product, cost competition, dealer as customer). Nevertheless, in the long term a strong organizational culture is preferable to a weak one. Third, the attitude that people are a variable cost is, in effective HRM, replaced by the view that people are a resource and that as social capital can be developed and can contribute to competitive advantage. Increasingly, it is accepted that competitive advantage is gained through well-educated and trained, motivated and committed employees at all levels. This recognition is now almost universal, and accounts for the plausible argument that training and development are, or will be, the central pillar of HRM. Fourth, the view that the interests of employees and management or shareholders are divergent and confliction Ã¢â¬â though substantially true in the past Ã¢â¬â is giving way to the view that this need not necessarily be so. As organization, which practices, effective HRM seeks to identify and promote a commonality of interests. Significant examples are training which enhances employment security and higher earning capacity for employees while at the same time increasing the employee's value to the enterprise's goals of better productivity and performance; pay systems which increase earnings without significant labor cost increases, and which at the same time promote higher performance levels; goal-setting through two-way communication which establishes unified goals and objectives and which provides intrinsic rewards to the employee through a participatory process. Fifth, top-down communication coupled with controlled information flow to keep power within the control of management giving way to a sharing of information and knowledge. This change facilitates the creation of trust and commitment and makes knowledge more productive. Control from the top is in effective HRM being replaced by increasing employee participation and policies, which foster commitment and flexibility that help organizations to change when necessary. The ways in which the larger Japanese enterprises have installed participatory schemes and introduced information-sharing and two-way communication systems are instructive in this regard. In enterprises that tend to have corporate philosophies or missions, and where there are underlying values that shape their corporate culture, HRM becomes a part of the strategy to achieve their objectives. In some types of enterprises such as ones in which continuous technological change takes place, the goal of successfully managing change at short intervals often requires employee cooperation through emphasis on communication and involvement. As this type of unit grows, Ã¢â¬Å"If there is strategic thinking in human resource management these units are likely to wish to develop employee-relations policies based on high individualism paying above market rates to recruit and retain the best labor, careful selection and recruitment systems to ensure high quality and skill potential, emphasis on internal training schemes to develop potential for further growth, payment system designed to reward individual performance and cooperation, performance and appraisal reviews, and strong emphasis on team work and communication Ã¢â¬ ¦ In short, technical and capital investment is matched by human resource investments, at times reaching near the ideals of human resource management. Shift of personnel management to HRM took place in three stages: Records and 1. Records and Administration 2. Accountability Regulations 3. Competitive Advantage 1. Records and Administration In first stage the primary activities, which were carried out by personnel department, were, Planning Company picnics Scheduling vacations, Enrolling workers for health-are coverage, Planning retirement parties These concerns include how to mange layoffs, address reduced employee loyalty, create a well trained highly motivated work force that can deliver higher quality and productivity, mange and increase diverse workforce and contain health care cost. 2. Accountability Regulations During this stage primary framework of rules and regulations started emerging tin the organization. In 1970s, the job of the HR manger was to keep their companies out of court and in compliance with the increasing number of regulations governing the work place. In the 1980s HR mangers had to address staffing costs related to mergers and acquisitions and downsizing. The economic issues related to an increasingly global and completive workplace characterize the 1990s. Beside these concerns 3. Competitive Advantage The aim of this shift stage is from merely securing compliance to the more ambitious one of winning commitment. The employee resource, therefore, becomes worth investing in, and training and development thus assume a higher profile. These initiatives are associated with, and maybe are even predicated upon, a tendency to shift from a collective orientation to the management of the workforce to an individualistic one. Accordingly management looks for Ã¢â¬Ëflexibility' and seeks to reward differential performance in a differential way. Communication of managerial objectives and aspirations takes on a whole new importance. What separates or distinguishes HRM from the traditional personnel function is the integration of HRM into strategic management and the pre-occupation of HRM with utilizing the human resource to achieve strategic management objectives. HRM Ã¢â¬Å"seeks to eliminate the mediation role and adopts a generally unitary perspective. It emphasizes strategy and planning rather than problem solving and mediation, so that employee cooperation is delivered by programme of corporate culture, remuneration packaging, and team building and management development for core employees, while peripheral employees are kept at arm's length. HRM strategies may be influenced by the decisions taken on strategy (the nature of the business currently and in the future) and by the structure of the enterprise (the manner in which the enterprise is structured or organized to meet is objectives). In an enterprise with effective HRM polices and practices, the decisions on HRM are also strategic decisions influenced by strategy and structure, and by external factors such as trade unions, the labor market situation and the legal system. In reality most firms do not have such a well thought out sequential HRM model. But we are considering here is also effective HRM, and thus a model where HRM decisions are as strategic as the decisions on the type of business and structure. At conceptual level the interpretations of HRM indicate different emphases, which lead to concentration on different contents of the discipline. The various distinctions or interpretations indicate that HRM Ã¢â¬Å"Can be used in a restricted sense so reserving it as a label only for that approach to labor management which treats labor as a valued asset rather than a variable cost and which accordingly counsels investment in the labor resource through training and development and through measures designed to at tract and retain a committed workforce. Alternatively it is sometimes used in an extended way so as to refer to a whole array of recent managerial initiatives including measures to increase the flexible utilization of the labor resource and other measures, which are largely directed at the individual employee. But another distinction can also be drawn. This directs attention to the Ã¢â¬Ëhard' and Ã¢â¬Ësoft' versions of HRM. The Ã¢â¬Ëhard' one emphasizes the quantitative, calculative and business-strategic aspects of managing the headcounts resource in as Ã¢â¬Ërational' a way as for any other economic factor. By contrast, the Ã¢â¬Ësoft' version traces its roots to the human-relations school; it emphasizes communication, motivation, and leadership. There are several ways in which HRM has changed earlier attitudes and assumptions of personnel management about managing people. The new model of HRM includes many elements vital to the basic management goal of achieving and maintaining
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Jazz originated from the United States in the early part of the 20th century. From Ragtime and blues to Big Bean and Bebop, jazz has been a part of a proud African American tradition for over 100 years. The history of jazz has its roots firmly planted in the American cities of New Orleans, Chicago, and New York City. New Orleans jazz was first recorded in Chicago and New York, not in New Orleans. The first recording was the Original Dixieland Jazz Band. Jazz is often referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s classical music.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Jazz is known as oneÃ¢â¬â¢s of North AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s oldest and most celebrated musical genres. Clarence Williams takes credit for the term by declaring that he was the first to ever use the word Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢JazzÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ in a song. Jazz originated from brass band and ragtime piano styles of the 1800s that were blende to satisfy dancers. During the 1890s, jazz began to be recognizable as a style of its own. A lot of jazz is offered i n night in nightclubs, where people gather to hear music while they drink and talk with friends. The term Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢jazzÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ has variety of meaning because it has been used to describe so many different kind of music. Also the terms jazz has many different meaning according to who is using the word. Jazz can be defined as improvisation and swing feeling. Improvisation is to compose and perform at the time and the swing feeling is a steady beat, lilting feeling, and the syncopating. The meaning of jazz is all depend on the person but the overall meaning are theShow MoreRelatedJazz During the 1920s1147 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJazz During the 1920s The 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s was a time of innovation, creativity, and recklessness, causing a need for a new style of music. Jazz was fast-paced, upbeat, and very adaptive and it would go hand-in-hand with hedonistic lifestyle, truly giving the 20Ã¢â¬â¢s the title of The Jazz Age. 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Saturday, December 28, 2019
LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s Address: Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (1520) Using the Ninety-Five Theses, Martin Luther almost single handedly lead the reformation of the Protestants in 1520. Although his father was strict, Luther followed his own path by questioning the limits of the church. Because of this, the church shunned Luther and punished him accordingly. Luther spent most of his time studying writings by Augustine which he used these ideas to influence the way Christianity is practiced today. Creating Lutheranism as well as the basic concepts for many branches of religions today. Martin Luther was a German professor of theology at Wittensberg. He later left his studies to peruse monkhood. In doing this, Luther had a lot of time to think about his relationship with God and realize the flaws in the church. Luther disagreed with many teachings/ ideas of the Roman Church, which he than acted upon. He strongly disputed the idea that one can obtain freedom from God s punishment for committing sin by purchasing an expensive piece of paper from the church called an Indulgence. He wrote all about the usefulness of indulgences in community in a very sarcastic tone in Theses Ninety-Five in 1517. Although demanded, Luther refused to rid of his writings at the request of Pope Charles V. In addition to indulgences, Luther also wrote about Ã¢â¬Å"St. PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s Scandal.Ã¢â¬ He states, Ã¢â¬Å"Why does not the pope, whose wealth today is greater than the wealth of the richest Crassus, build theShow MoreRelatedEssay on The German Reformation764 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe German Reformation The Reformation of the Catholic Church was always going to happen; it was just a question of when? For centuries the Church had been fighting off herises. In Germany between 1513 and 1530, it just so happened that a number of key factors for the Reformation co-insided. The clearly corrupted church and papacy; the development of printing; the arrival and actions of Martin Luther and public opinion; the absence of the Emperor in the 1520Ã¢â¬â¢s and theRead MoreThe Protestant Revolution1335 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesclassical sources in the glorification of human nature and loyalty to traditional religion, being impressed more with human potential of doing evil over good. --Second decade of the sixteenth century; conflict existed during this time from emerging nation-states of Europe --Saxony, Germany (spread through N Europe quickly) --The members were literate and sophisticated about the world in a rapidly growing industry that was economically ambitious, they had an economic stake in fanning religious conflictRead MoreMartin Luther and Phillip Melanchthons Contributions in Educational Reform in the Protestant Reformation2406 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesMartin Luther and Phillip Melanchthons Contributions in Educational Reform in the Protestant Reformation The life of Martin Luther is frequently studied and his ideas are widely known. Accounts of the nailing of his Ninety-Five theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg and his condemnation at the Diet of Worms are considered by many in the western world to be common knowledge. What is less frequently explored; however, are his vast achievements outside of his